# Bash Arithmetic Operators

In Bash, you can perform arithmetic operations using various arithmetic operators. Here are the commonly used arithmetic operators in Bash:

1. Addition (+): Adds two values together. Example: `result=\$((2 + 3))`
2. Subtraction (-): Subtracts one value from another. Example: `result=\$((10 - 5))`
3. Multiplication (*): Multiplies two values. Example: `result=\$((4 * 6))`
4. Division (/): Divides one value by another. Example: `result=\$((20 / 4))`
5. Modulo (%): Computes the remainder of division. Example: `result=\$((15 % 6))`
6. Increment (++) and Decrement (–): Increases or decreases the value of a variable by 1. Example:
``````a=5
a=\$((a + 1))  # Increment by 1
a=\$((a - 1))  # Decrement by 1
``````
1. Exponentiation (**): Raises one value to the power of another. Example: `result=\$((2 ** 3))`
2. Arithmetic expressions within double parentheses (( )): Allows complex arithmetic expressions and evaluation. Example: `result=\$(( (5 + 3) * 2 - 1 ))`
3. Arithmetic expansion using \$(( )): Evaluates arithmetic expressions within a \$(( )) construct. Example: `result=\$((\$a + \$b))`

Here’s an example that combines different arithmetic operations:

``````#!/bin/bash

a=5
b=3

result1=\$((a + b))
result2=\$((a * b))
result3=\$((a / b))

echo "Result 1: \$result1"
echo "Result 2: \$result2"
echo "Result 3: \$result3"
``````

When you run this script, it will output:

``````Result 1: 8
Result 2: 15
Result 3: 1
``````

These arithmetic operators allow you to perform mathematical calculations within Bash scripts. You can use them to manipulate numeric values, perform calculations, and make decisions based on arithmetic comparisons.